Responses to the Bioactive Component of Crassocephalum crepidioides on Histomorphology, Spermatogenesis and Steroidogenesis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats
Adelakun SA* and Ogunlade B
Department of Human Anatomy, School of Health and Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Journal of reproductive endocrinology and infertility
Male reproductive function is clearly impaired in diabetes. This study investigates the responses to the bioactive component of Crassocephalum crepidioides (C. crepidioides) on histomorphology, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Male Rats. Eighteen (18) male diabetic and twelve non diabetic male rats were divided into five groups of six (n=6) rats each. Group A served as non diabetic (ND) control were given 2 mL/kg distilled water each twice daily, group B: Diabetic control (DC); diabetic rats given 2 mL/kg distilled water each daily as placebo, group C: 500 mgkg-1 body weight of C. crepidioides was administered orally twice daily in Non-Diabetic groups, group D:500 mgkg-1 body weight of C. crepidioides was administered orally twice daily in Diabetic groups; group E: Diabetic rats treated subcutaneously with 5 units/kg.bwt of insulin. The duration of the study was 28 days. Parameters tested include: fasting blood and serum glucose, sperm parameters, Testosterone (TT), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testicular histology. C. crepidioides significantly decreased blood and serum glucose levels and significantly improved sperm quality and TT, FSH and LH in diabetic rats when compared with the Non-diabetic control. Degeneration and inflammatory responses in the testicular cells of the diabetic rats were significant improved after the administration of the plant extracts. The present study suggested that C. crepidioides extract improved the quality, viability, motility of semen analysis and reproductive hormone thereby preserving the testicular functions and male genital organs in diabetic rats.
Crassocephalum crepidioides; Spermatogenesis; Steroidogenesis; Streptozotocin; Diabetes; histomorphology
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common life threatening disorders of metabolism  and is globally regarded important public health problems . Most male individual usually suffer from sub-fertility or infertility due to diabetic complication , through multifactorial mechanisms . Several structural and functional alterations occurs in many organs due to diabetes such as testis, pancreas, and brain [5-7]. Diabetes complications has been reported to impair male reproductive functions both humans and animals studies [8,9]. These complications also impairs spermatogenesis and reduces sperm count, sperm motility, seminal fluid volume, and testosterone levels [6,8,9]. In addition, diabetics reduced the diameter of the seminiferous tubule and thickening of the basement membrane within the seminiferous tubules and degeneration of the germ cells in several diabetic animals . C. crepidioides is known to contain a large number of phytochemical compounds which include: Alkaloids, Glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Coumarin, Tannins, Flavonoids, Saponins, Reducing sugar .
Infertility has been regarded as one of the major public health problems globally, and approximately 30 % of infertilities are due to a male factor [11,12]. Several diabetic complications interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm quality and production such as drug treatment, chemotherapy, toxins, air pollutions and insufficient vitamins intake have harmful effects on spermatogenesis and sperm normal production . Antioxidants and vitamin A, B, C, and E in diet can protect sperm DNA from scavengers such as free radicals and improve the mechanism of blood-testes barrier .
Crassocephalum crepidioides is also referred to as red flower ragleaf and also called ‘Ebolo’ (in Yoruba land in Nigeria). It is an annual edible plant that is found in several tropical and subtropical areas . The fleshy C. crepidioides leaves and stems are usually eaten and have several medicinal importances . Several studies on C. crepidioides revealed its significance in the treatment of indigestion, stomach ache, epilepsy, sleeping sickness, swollen lips and it has also antitumor activity associated with nitric oxide production . In addition, it has antioxidant properties that protects against hepatotoxicity . Furthermore, methanolic extract of C. crepidioides possesses promising anti-hyperlipidemic activity . Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the responses to the bioactive component of Crassocephalum crepidioides on histomorphology, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic male rats.
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